Kerala a, state in southwestern India on the Malabar Coast. The official language is Malayalam, using a separate script. The largest city in kerala is Kochi / Cochin, the capital – Thiruvananthapuram / Trivandrum.
Kerala is one of the most densely populated regions of India. With the average life of the inhabitants of at 73 years and 19% share of illiterate people in the society, Kerala is one of the states with the highest levels of health and education. Several state religion – mostly orthodox Hindus in their bans access to many temples, a quarter of the population are Christians of Malabar church supposedly derived from the Thomas the Apostle and the Muslims who arrived here in the seventh century with the Arab merchants. In addition, living in Kerala for centuries the Jewish diaspora (from the sixteenth-century synagogue in Kochi). Stan was in the past been affected by colonization by the British, Dutch and Portuguese. The state is famous for its lavish world of organized religious and cultural festivals. Known for the martial arts practiced today payattu kalari, keralskiego tejjam ritual dance, classical theater of Kathakali religious references, Sanskrit drama kutiyattam and Ayurvedic therapies. On the other hand, a large involvement in the Communist power.
State name comes from the words kera (coconut palm) and alam (country).
This state borders Tamil Nadu and Karnataka to the east and north-east, the west and south it borders the Indian Ocean, on its territory is also Mahé – coastal exclave union territory Puducherry, a former French colony. Is also close to the Lakshadweep archipelago. Malabar Coast length – 590 km. Densely forested northern Western Ghats rises on average to a height of 1500 m above sea level Anamudi the highest peak (2695 m) on the west mountain pass in a landscape of hills, and then in the fertile plain of the Arabian Sea. Between the cities of Cochin and Kollam belt extends canals, lakes and lagoons (called Backwaters). South of Cochin is the largest reservoir of water – lake Vembanad. In most of the water flowing from Western ghats. The largest river – Periyar.
Tropical climate with small temperature variations, depending on the monsoons. South-west monsoon usually arrives in Kerala in early June and the rain brought by last October. The amount of rainfall – 1250 mm in the lowlands and 5000 mm in the mountains. Most of them falls on monsoon season. From October to May rainfall low, but humidity still high.
The basis of the state of the economy is agriculture. Crops are about 600 species of rice are also important crops such as coconut palms, tea, rubber and spices – pepper, vanilla and cinnamon. It produces copra. Importance to fisheries. A share of the economy are also industry and tourism. Kerala tours offered by Indian Tour Planners, which you can find it in the page www.indiantourplanners.com/kerala.php has got some handpicked tour packages to be in kerala. The state is one of the most visited state in India especially by travellers from around the world as well as from other states in India. Details information about the kerala tourism super brand in the webiste www.keraltourism.org
Kerala has the lowest infant mortality rate and the highest number of literate in India (91%). Compared to the violation of India’s demographic balance in Kerala – with more women than men. Despite the reforms of the 60s many Keralites working as guest workers in the Middle East by sending money to your family in Kerala. These amounts are an important part of the revenue of Kerala.
Kerala is a state of generally peaceful coexistence of several religions. Its inhabitants profess Hinduism (56.2%), Islam (24.7%), Christianity (19%) and Judaism and other religions (0.1%) .The most important centers of Hinduism: Chottanikkara near Kochi with pilgrims seeking exorcism Brahmin temple in Sri Padmanabhaswami in Thiruvananthapuram, Wadakkunatha temple (worship of Shiva) in Thrissur, (Trichur). It is believed that 50 the N.E. evangelization through St. Thomas on this land appeared Christians. St. George, the patron of saving against snakebites here has great respect not only for Christians. At the root of settling Jews there are Muslims and Hindu rulers decide who to give the land to Muslims and Jews have contributed to the rise in Kondungallurze oldest mosque in India and in Kerala in the sixteenth century Jewish synagogue built by the community, which found refuge here from persecution Portuguese.
Legend has it that Kerala has emerged from the sea due to Parasurama. The gods gave him land in which they turned into the sea at the point where he threw the axe. Between the mountains and the sea was present Kerala. From 3,000 years of Kerala coast was known to trade in spices and ivory. From there, kerala moved goods from Asia to the west. Due to the dense jungle for human development evolved slowly, only contacts with the Mauryan dynasty, gave impetus to the development. During this period (320-180 BC), in present-day Kerala spread Buddhism and Jainism. On the ground in 52 of the allegedly N.E. in that year by the Roman scholar Pliny the Elder port of Muziris (Kodungallur) Thomas the Apostle landed in bringing Christians to India. Perhaps, however, they appeared to Syrian merchants. The first communities were established only in the fourth century AD Jews arrived after the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem in 70 AD Coast developed particularly through trade contacts with Chinese, Arabic, Roman merchants. Also maintained trade relations with Fenicjaą and Egypt.
Until about 400 years N.E. the lands of present-day central Kerala kings ruled the red trading with the Greeks, Romans and Arabs, warring dynasties of Tamil Ćolów and Pandja. In the north of the kingdom of Kerala arose from the capital Mooshika called Ezhimala. Among today’s capital of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram and the Point Comorim were Ajów state. Most prominent were the cherries, which are already mentioned in Asoka’s time. Between 400 r N.E. RED Kalabhrasz were defeated by Deccan. This period is considered the dark times. 400 years later, these rulers were defeated by the dynasties Pallavas, Chlukyas, Pandya.
The Kulasekhara rein 800 (800-820) dynasty resumed power red. Since the foundation of Kollam in 825 counts in the Malayalam language culture time. The most important role during the second dynasty red Ravi Varman played Sthanu. During his reign (844-885) maritime trade flourished. At the same time in 851 years with the arrival of the Arab merchant Suleiman arrived in what is now Kerala Muslims. After the death of the ruler there was a war with the Tamil dynasty Ćolów. During the reign of the last dynasty red (Rama Varma Kulasekhara 1090-1102) occupied the capital of the kingdom Ćolowie Mahodyapuram (originally Muziris).
Red end of the reign inaugurated the fragmentation into small states. The most important is – Venads (with time Travancore), Nediyirippu Swarupam ruled Zamorine of Calicut (now Kozhikode) and Perumpadappu Swarup (Cochin). The first ruler Venads Marthanda Udaya Varma (1175-1195) developed the capital of Quilon (Kollam today) into a thriving port in 1275 visited by Marco Polo. Venads reached the peak of development under the rule of Kulasekhara Ravi Varma (1299-1314). Then he declined to regain importance as a principality until Travancore. Nediyirippu Swarup, the capital city of Calicut (Kozhikode)) owe their prosperity to trade relations with China and Arabia. Zamorins widened its state road conquests. An end to the growing strength of established European colonies. By this time little is known about Perumpadappu Swarup (Cochin) as well as Calicut and Quilon subsistence maritime trade. In the fifteenth century, it came into conflict with the expansive state Zamorin.
In 1498 years the arrival of Vasco da Gama was a sign of the start of the colonization of these areas (from 1498 to 1947). At the beginning of the sixteenth century the Portuguese colonized lands, defeated in 1663 by the Dutch. In 1795 the land came under the control of the British East India Company.
In May 1498, the lap of African, Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama landed at Kappad beach, 30 km from Calicut. At first, he was warmly received by the Zamorin. Soon lost trade privileges from the Arabs trying to take over the spice trade. Using the hostility between Zamorin and Cochin, the Portuguese broke the Arab monopoly on the spice trade. Vasco da Gama has entered into an alliance with the Raja so Kochi and 1,503 years in India, he built the first European fort. Calicut and Cochin were caught in a war between the Arabs and the Portuguese. 1506 years Afonso de Albuquerque was appointed governor of the Portuguese possessions in India. Portuguese colonization of the culture influenced the future of Kerala. The remainder is the cultivation of tobacco, or architecture. Unfortunately, Portugal contributed his time to religious intolerance in these areas.
Corruption and economic weakness led Portugal in the sixteenth century to the collapse of its government in Kerala. Her place was taken by the Netherlands. In 1603 Admiral Steven van der Hagen landed in Calicut has entered into an agreement with Zamorinem plotting against Portugal. As a result, gained permission to build fortresses in Purakkad, Kayakulum, Quilon and Travancore. In 1663 the Dutch took Kochi eventually taking power from the Portuguese. At that time, there was also an increase in strength and invasion Travankoru Mysore. The Dutch dominated the area in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Marthand Varma in 1729 inherited what remained of the kingdom of Venad conquered the neighboring principalities to form Travancore. At the Battle of Colachel in 1741 beat the Dutch. 1753 signed an agreement with them for peace. Rama Varma, the 1758 successor to the throne was as effective leader. There was a 1798. In 1791, threatened by Mysore addicted to help Britons becoming a British protectorate with the apparent independence officially guaranteed. Until the independence of India in 1947.
Hyder Ali, the ruler of Mysore strengthened the struggle against British colonialism in 1764 attacked the Kerala today. Two years later, he took Calicut. 1773 won Trichur (Thrissur today). His successor, Tipu Sultan in the years 1790 to 1792 came to power in southern Kerala. Soon, however, was defeated by the British.
The British ruled Kerala from the seventeenth century to 1947. For the first time made an agreement with Zamorin trade in 1615. Twenty years later, they were allowed to commercially exploit all the Portuguese ports of Kerala. After the collapse of Portugal’s power Calicut in 1664 came under British rule. Mysore invasion gave them the opportunity to consolidate his power in Kerala. 1795 years Travancore principality became their protectorate. In 1800, the entire Kerala was already under British control. It was only in the 20s Twentieth century there was a revolt – including Moplah uprising in 1921 and Punnapra-Vayalar revolt of 1946.
Two years after independence, India Travancore and Cochin principalities joined India in 1950 to form the state, reorganized in 1956 as a result of taking into account the boundaries of states used language. Creating in 1956 (demarcation zone Malayalam language), the present state of Kerala also included in the duchy of Travancore, Cochin and Malabar. The southernmost part of Travancore (Kanyakumari district) came into the rocks of Madras (Tamil Nadu since 1969.) In the first elections in Kerala in 1957, won by the Communist Party of India. For the first time in independent India lost the election the Indian National Congress, the first time a democratically elected Communist Party. Two years later, Prime Minister EMS Namboodiripad cabinet collapsed as a result of the riots. Despite this, the communists are still in power.
Currently keralas political scene was dominated by two alliances: United Democratic Front (UDF) led by the Indian National Congress and the Left Democratic Front (LDF), led by the Communist Party of India (Marxist). The Communist government of Kerala drew the world’s attention in 2006 banning the sale and production of Coca-Cola (due to the detection of pesticides). It also speaks against the Microsoft monopoly. Since May 2011, the chief Minister is the Oommen Chandy. Due to the high level of education and developed the art of Kerala is one of the most progressive states of India.
To know more about kerala please visit the government promoted website www.kerala.gov.in which has got all detailed information about the state, its current situation and links to other government websites.
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